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Business Concepts

Jeff Bezos’ Regret Minimization Framework

“A single decision has the power to change your life” We have all heard this phrase, restated, time and again in our lives by someone or the other, in a slightly distinct fashion, if not using the exact same words. In the case of Jeff Bezos, one of the richest men on the planet, a single decision did actually end up changing the trajectory of his life, and the world of commerce.  The story dates back to 1994. At the time, Jeff Bezos was working in a senior management position in a company called D.E. Shaw, a successful quant-focused hedge fund....

Captive Pricing [Definition, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages]

Let’s suppose you bought a new printer. But there is no point in owning a printer without buying any cartridges. So, you go ahead and buy a pair of cartridges to make use of the printer.  A few months later, you run out of cartridges and are, in a way, forced to buy them again. During the lifetime of using this printer, it is likely that you could end up spending more money on cartridges cumulatively than you spent on buying the printer.  If this happens to the case, the company you have bought the printer from would also end up...

High Low Pricing [ Definition, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages ]

High Low pricing is a popular pricing strategy in which a company charges a high price for a product in the beginning and reduces the prices later using discounting. Unlike the price skimming model, however, prices are not slashed permanently. Under the high low model, product prices alternate between high & lower during a particular time duration.  The goal of high low pricing is to lure customers to visit the stores with discounts, which might also lead them to buy other products as a result. The high low pricing is also different from everyday low pricing, which consistently uses low...

Price Skimming [ Definition, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages ]

Choosing a pricing strategy is a defining point in the life of a business — it decides the customer segments a business caters to, how much profit it will make, and the overall brand image of the endeavour. Price Skimming is one of the pricing strategies employed by businesses out of a host of different pricing models. Simply put, Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which the price of goods and services is highest at the time of launching a product to maximize profits from upper-market segments, and then lowered later on to attract price sensitive mid-market and lower-market...

Vertical Integration [ Definition, Types, Advantages & Disadvantages ]

When a business chooses to expand by either acquiring another company or developing expertise in an unchartered area itself, it uses either of two strategies — Horizontal Integration or Vertical Integration. Understanding these two concepts is critical to make sense of the strategy behind decisions made by companies and make a reasonable prediction about their future.  Put simply, Horizontal Integration is when a company tries to expand by acquiring a similar one in their industry at the same level of the supply chain. Marriott Hotels' acquisition of Starwood Hotels & Resorts for $13 billion in 2015, which created the world's...

CIRCLES Method

Created by Lewis C. Lin, Circles Method is a framework that product managers can use to develop comprehensive & thoughtful solutions to product design questions and challenges. To give examples, these product design questions could be anything from redesigning the Facebook newsfeed to improving Pinterest.  The Circles Method helps product managers cover all major bases of a unique product design problem using seven steps, which together form the CIRCLES acronym: Step 1: Comprehend the situation Step 2: Identify the customer  Step 3: Report the customer's needs Step 4: Cut, through prioritization Step 5: List Solutions Step 6: Evaluate tradeoffs Step 7: Summarize your recommendation. Let's look at each of...

Backward Integration [Definition, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages]

Before one can understand backward integration, one must first understand vertical integration because backward integration is essentially a type of vertical integration. But just understanding Vertical Integration without learning about its counterpart strategy — Horizontal Integration — would be like solving a puzzle with a missing piece. So, to help you develop a holistic understanding, I will first run you through Vertical & Horizontal integration briefly before explaining Backward Integration.   Companies looking to expand their business generally employ either of the two strategies: Horizontal Integration or Vertical Integration.  Horizontal integration is when a company expands by acquiring a similar one in their...

Decacorn Company Definition + Decacorn Company List

The goal of reaching a valuation of $1 billion, or in other words, becoming a 'Unicorn', is considered a milestone in the life of a startup.  But with more than 850 unicorn companies as of 2021 in the world compared to just 142 in 2015, the unicorn status has lost its charm. Startups are now setting their eyes on higher targets of becoming a ‘Decacorn’, Put simply, Decacorns are private companies having a valuation of more than $10 billion. Relative to Unicorns, Decacorns are a much more exclusive community, consisting of around 30+ companies as of 2021. Some familial examples...

Hectocorn Company Definition + Hectocorn Company List

Writing for Techcrunch in 2013, Aileen Lee, an American venture capitalist, coined the now frequently used word ‘Unicorn’. Unicorns, as we all know now, are companies valued at more than $1 billion. Similarly, Decacorns & Hectocorns are sister terms of ‘Unicorn’.  Decacorns are companies having a valuation of more than $10 billion. Hectacorns are companies having a valuation of more than $100 billion. As of 2021, only two companies — ByteDance & SpaceX — are part of this elite club of Hectocorn companies.  ByteDance, the parent company of Tik Tok, was the first company to become a Hectocorn after it was valued...

Forward Integration [ Definition, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages ]

Before we begin to understand forward integration, we need first to understand vertical integration because forward integration is essentially a type of vertical integration. Put simply, vertical integration is a business strategy wherein a company expands its operation within its supply chain, primarily through acquisitions. The direction in which the company grows through vertical integration can either be forward or backward. Forwards Integration, a type of vertical integration, happens when a company moves forward in the supply chain by acquiring or merging with a company on the distribution or retail end. To better understand how Forward Integration exactly works, let's check...